Site Selection of Hydroelectric Power Stations


Factors Affecting Hydroelectric Plant Location

Site selection of Hydroelectric  power plant

Hydroelectric power / Hydro-power plant is one of the eco-friendly power generation systems.It has less running cost and high efficiency (around 50%, compared to thermal plant much better). Site selection of hydroelectric power plant depends on some factors in order to give efficient output in terms of overall performance and economic.

Site selection of Hydroelectric power plant. 
Choice of Site For Hydro-Electric Power Stations

What are the points to be considered while selecting the sites of hydroelectric power plant?

The following points should be taken into account while selecting the site for a hydro-electric power station : 

(i) Availability of water.

Since the primary requirement of a hydro-electric power station is the availability of huge quantity of water,  such plants should be built at a place (e.g., river, canal) where adequate water is available at a good head.

(ii) Storage of water.

There are wide variations in water supply from a river or canal during the year.  This makes it necessary to store water by constructing a dam in order to ensure the generation of power throughout the year.  The storage helps in equalizing the flow of water so that any excess quantity of water at a certain period of the year can be made available during times of very low flow in the river.   This leads to the conclusion that site selected for a hydro-electric plant should provide adequate facilities for erecting a dam and storage of water.

(iii) Cost and type of land.

The land for the construction of the plant should be available at a reasonable price.  Further, the bearing capacity of the ground should be adequate to withstand the weight of heavy equipment to be installed.

(iv) Transportation facilities.

The site selected for a hydro-electric plant should be accessible by rail and road so that necessary equipment and machinery could be easily transported. It is clear from the above mentioned factors that ideal choice of site for such a plant is near a river in hilly areas where dam can be conveniently built and large reservoirs can be obtained.

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